Photographs of Rome Italy (Photo Albums Book 14) (Finnish Edition)
In recent years, there has been a significant growth in Rome's Muslim community, mainly due to immigration from North African and Middle Eastern countries into the city. Since the end of the Roman Republic, Rome is also the centre of an important Jewish community,  which was once based in Trastevere , and later in the Roman Ghetto. There lies also the major synagogue in Rome, the Tempio Maggiore.
Peter's Basilica , the Apostolic Palace , the Sistine Chapel , and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until When the Lateran Treaty of that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop.
For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed. The territory includes Saint Peter's Square , separated from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it borders Piazza Pio XII. This grand approach was designed by architects Piacentini and Spaccarelli, for want of Benito Mussolini and in accordance with the church, after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty.
According to the Lateran Treaty , certain properties of the Holy See located in Italian territory, most notably the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas , enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies. Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage site since the Middle Ages.
People from all over the Christian world visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. The Pope was the most influential figure during the Middle Ages. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages , Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon — Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St. Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to a large number of sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs: Helena in the 4th Century.
For centuries, the Scala Santa has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Object of pilgrimage are also several catacombs built in the Roman age, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches among them San Luigi dei francesi and Santa Maria dell'Anima , or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.
Traditionally, pilgrims in Rome and Roman citizens thanking God for a grace should visit by foot the seven pilgrim churches Italian: Le sette chiese in 24 hours. This custom, mandatory for each pilgrim in the Middle Ages, was codified in the 16th century by Saint Philip Neri. The seven churches are the four major Basilicas St Peter in Vatican , St Paul outside the Walls , St John in Lateran and Santa Maria Maggiore , while the other three are San Lorenzo fuori le mura a palaeochristian Basilica , Santa Croce in Gerusalemme a church founded by Helena , the mother of Constantine, which hosts fragments of wood attributed to the holy cross and San Sebastiano fuori le mura which lies on the Appian Way and is built above Roman catacombs.
Rome's architecture over the centuries has greatly developed, especially from the Classical and Imperial Roman styles to modern Fascist architecture. Rome was for a period one of the world's main epicentres of classical architecture, developing new forms such as the arch , the dome and the vault. Originally capable of seating 60, spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. The medieval popular quarters of the city, situated mainly around the Capitol, were largely demolished between the end of the 19th century and the fascist period, but many notable buildings still remain.
Basilicas dating from the Christian antiquity include Saint Mary Major and Saint Paul outside the Walls the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century , both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics. Notable later notable medieval mosaics and frescoes can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere , Santi Quattro Coronati , and Santa Prassede. Secular buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the Torre dei Conti , both next the Roman Forum, and the huge outdoor stairway leading up to the basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.
Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance , second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo. Many of the famous city's squares — some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks , some small and picturesque — got their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque.
Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama , now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio , now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy. In , Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism , a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity , became a predominant influence in Roman architecture.
During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing agencies. The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between and had its showcase in Rome. Mussolini allowed the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during the papal rule. The main activities during his government were: Architecturally, Fascism favored the most modern movements, such as Rationalism.
Parallel to this, in the s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano. The EUR was originally conceived for the world exhibition , and was called "E. The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in , and the realised buildings were partly destroyed in during the fighting between Italian and German army after the armistice and later abandoned. Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina , the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs , was designed in in pure Fascist style.
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill comprising some 1. Also on the Gianicolo hill there is Villa Sciarra , with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. The old Roman hippodrome Circus Maximus is another large green space: Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana , close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla.
The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Noteworthy is also the Pine wood of Castelfusano , near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano. Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical.
The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas of Rome. During the Roman Empire , in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus , the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts which fed 39 monumental fountains and public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas.
Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.
- Television Style?
- Francesca Woodman: On Being an Angel at The Finnish Museum of Photography | Victoria Miro;
- Sleeping in Darkness (The Darkness Book 1)!
- Die Waldorfschule - Zur Pädagogik Rudolf Steiners (German Edition).
- World War Zelda.
During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens , were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures, and filled with emotion and movement. In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power". Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome.
These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to often satirically voice their opinions. There are two main talking statues: Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus , Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus , Marforio represents Oceanus , Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis , and il Facchino is the only non-Roman statue, created in , and not representing anyone in particular.
They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti expressing political ideas and points of view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno in the Campo de'Fiori.
The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks , together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly until an ancient Ethiopian obelisk in Rome. Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan 's and Antonine Column , two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi , which connects the Isola Tiberina with the left bank.
Considering Ponte Nomentano , also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene , currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city. Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. Rome has extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff , a soft volcanic rock , outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law forbade burial places within city limits. Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco the supervision of the Catacombs of St.
Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome. As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government and its single Ministeri , the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City.
Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute. Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services , high-technology companies IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications , research, construction and commercial activities especially banking , and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy.
Rome's international airport, Fiumicino , is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's largest companies: Enel , Eni , and Telecom Italia. Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries.
Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome and the Renaissance , along with Florence.
Rome has a large number of universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza founded in , is one of the largest in the world, with more than , students attending; in it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university  and in the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings. Tor Vergata in , and Roma Tre in Rome's major libraries include: There are also a large number of specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome , the French Academy in Rome and the Bibliotheca Hertziana — Max Planck Institute of Art History , a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences; .
Rome is an important centre for music, and it has an intense musical scene, including several prestigious music conservatories and theatres. It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia founded in , for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica , one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma , as well as several minor musical institutions. Rome has also had a major impact in music history. The Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras.
The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel , though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina , whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.
Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" parks. Among the most significant resources are the many museums — Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art — aqueducts , fountains , churches, palaces , historical buildings, the monuments and ruins of the Roman Forum , and the Catacombs.
Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome ,  and The Swedish Institute at Rome. The Colosseum , arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world. Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains , mosaics , frescos , and paintings, from all different periods.
Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art such as architecture , painting, sculpture and mosaic work. Metal-work , coin die and gem engraving, ivory carvings , figurine glass, pottery , and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork. Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence , and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice. The city was affected greatly by the baroque , and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini , Caravaggio , Carracci , Borromini and Cortona.
Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini and Bernardo Bellotto. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes  and museums. Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. Maxxi  features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research. Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the Global Language Monitor after Milan , New York, and Paris, and beating London.
Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age. Ancient Roman cuisine was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques. Later, during the Renaissance , Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes. An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi , who was a chef working for Pius IV in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare was published.
In the book he lists approximately recipes of the Renaissance cuisine and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork. Examples of Roman dishes include " Saltimbocca alla Romana " — a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; " Carciofi alla romana " — artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Carciofi alla giudia " — artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; " Spaghetti alla carbonara " — spaghetti with bacon , eggs and pecorino , and " Gnocchi di semolino alla romana " — semolina dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.
Although associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In highest antiquity, Sabine tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes.
The 12888 Best Hotels in Rome
The Sabine language was one of the Italic group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in BC. Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla , wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius. However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual.
Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire. Latin evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the " volgare ".
Rare Historical Photos - And the story behind them
The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The Romanesco spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language in Campania.
The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance , and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici Popes Leo X and Clement VII , caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio Civitavecchia , Latina and others , from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems. As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian.
Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli one of the most important Italian poets altogether , Trilussa and Cesare Pascarella. It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a " lingua vernacola " vernacular language , meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population. Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive however.
Through the process of Romanization , the peoples of Italy, Gallia , the Iberian Peninsula and Dacia developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonization and migration. Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest , borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language.
The Roman or Latin alphabet is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages. Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and a large number of foreign religious students or pilgrims and so has always been a multilingual city. Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.
Association football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The latter took place in the Olympic Stadium , which is also the shared home stadium for local Serie A clubs S. Lazio , founded in , and A. Roma , founded in , whose rivalry in the Derby della Capitale has become a staple of Roman sports culture. Roma , and Alessandro Nesta for S. Rome hosted the Summer Olympics , with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese and the Thermae of Caracalla as venues.
For the Olympic Games many new structures were created, notably the new large Olympic Stadium which was also enlarged and renewed to host qualification and the final match of the FIFA World Cup , the Villaggio Olimpico Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district , ecc. Rome made a bid to host the Summer Olympics but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files. Further, Rome hosted the EuroBasket and is home to the internationally recognized basketball team Virtus Roma.
Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. Until the Stadio Flaminio was the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team , which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since The team now plays home games at the Stadio Olimpico because the Stadio Flaminio needs works of renovation in order to improve both its capacity and safety.
Rome is home to local rugby union teams such as Rugby Roma founded in and winner of five Italian championships, the latter in — , Unione Rugby Capitolina and S. Lazio rugby union branch of the multisport club S. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded.
Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia three times, in , , and Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball M. Roma Volley , handball or waterpolo. Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini , is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around thousand travellers passing through every day.
The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina , has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus. Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport is Italy's chief airport, is located within the nearby Fiumicino , south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino , south-east of Rome.
Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea Lido di Ostia , this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats.
- The British World: Diaspora, Culture and Identity;
- Ada liebt: Roman (Taschenbücher) (German Edition)?
- Web Publishing and Design with HTML 4.01 and XHTML: Basics of HTML and XHTML.
The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia , located about 62 kilometres 39 miles northwest of the city. The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size.
In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10, inhabitants, far below other major European cities. More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere , Testaccio and San Lorenzo has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts. A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the s.
The line had been planned to quickly connect the main railway station with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition in the s to serve as a modern business district.
The line was finally opened in , and it is now the south part of the B Line. The A line opened in from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages — to Battistini. In the s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line as it is relatively short.
The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of 3. It will partly replace the existing Termini -Pantano rail line. It will feature full automated, driverless trains. A fourth line, D line, is also planned.
The first section was projected to open in and the final sections before , but due to the city's financial crisis the project has been put on hold. Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network FR lines. The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S. Among the global cities , Rome is unique in having two sovereign entities located entirely within its city limits, the Holy See, represented by the Vatican City State, and the territorially smaller Sovereign Military Order of Malta.
The Vatican is an enclave of the Italian capital city and a sovereign possession of the Holy See , which is the Diocese of Rome and the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome therefore hosts foreign embassies to the Italian government, to the Holy See, to the Order of Malta and to certain international organizations. John Lateran of which the President of the French Republic is ex officio the "first and only honorary canon ", a title held by the heads of the French state since King Henry IV of France.
It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status. Rome is the seat of the so-called Polo Romano  made up by three main international agencies of the United Nations: Rome has traditionally been involved in the process of European political integration. The Treaties of the EU are located in Palazzo della Farnesina , seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs , due the fact that the Italian government is the depositary of the treaties. In the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome , which established the European Economic Community predecessor to the European Union , and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July Rome is since 9 April exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with:.
During the 18th century, Italy was in the spotlight of the European grand tour, a period in which learned and wealthy foreign, usually British or German, aristocrats visited the country due to its artistic, cultural and archaeological richness. Since then, throughout the centuries, many writers and poets have sung of Italy's beauty; from Goethe to Stendhal to Byron , Italy's natural beauty and her people's creativity inspired their works. Percy Bysshe Shelley famously said that Italy is "the paradise of exiles.
Italiophilia was not uncommon in the United States. Thomas Jefferson was a great admirer of Italy and ancient Rome. Jefferson is largely responsible for the neo-classical buildings in Washington, D. Spain provided an equally telling example of Italian cultural admiration in the 18th century. The installation of a team of Italian architects and artists, headed by Filippo Juvarra , has been interpreted as part of Queen Elisabeth Farnese's conscious policy to mould the visual culture of the Spanish court along Italian lines.
The engagement of Corrado Giaquinto from Molfetta and eventually the Venetian Jacopo Amigoni as the creators of the painted decorative space for the new seat of the Spanish court was a clear indication of this aesthetic orientation, while the later employment of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and his son Giovanni Domenico confirmed the Italophile tendency.
The Victorian era in Great Britain saw Italophilic tendencies. Britain supported its own version of the imperial Pax Romana , called Pax Britannica. John Ruskin was a Victorian Italophile who respected the concepts of morality held in Italy. During the Fascist era , several leaders in Europe and Latin America modeled their government and economic system on Italian Fascism. Adolf Hitler was an avid admirer of Benito Mussolini. Since then Italy has experienced a strong economic growth, particularly in the s and s, which lifted the country to the position of being one of the most industrialized nations in the world.
The Italian peninsula has been at the heart of Western cultural development at least since Roman times. Also prominent in Latin literature were the orator-rhetorician Cicero ; the satirist Juvenal ; the prose writers Pliny the Elder , his nephew Pliny the Younger ; and the historians Sallust , Livy , and Suetonius. Julius Caesar , renowned as a historian and prose stylist, is even more famous as a military and political leader. The first of the Roman emperors was Octavian, better known by the honorific Augustus. Noteworthy among later emperors are the tyrants Caligula and Nero , the philosopher-statesman Marcus Aurelius , and Constantine I , who was the first to accept Christianity.
No history of the Christian Church during the medieval period would be complete without mention of such men of Italian birth as St. Francis of Assisi , and the philosopher-theologians St. Anselm of Canterbury and St. No land has made a greater contribution to the visual arts. During the 16th century, the High Renaissance, Rome shared with Florence the leading position in the world of the arts. Among the great painters of the late Renaissance were Tintoretto and Paolo Veronese.
Giorgio Vasari was a painter, architect, art historian, and critic. A noted contemporary architect was Pier Luigi Nervi. Music, an integral part of Italian life, owes many of its forms as well as its language to Italy. The musical staff was either invented or established by Guido of Arezzo. A leading 14th-century composer was the blind Florentine organist Francesco Landini. Italian-born Luigi Cherubini was the central figure of French music in the Napoleonic era, while Antonio Salieri and Gaspare Spontini played important roles in the musical life of Vienna and Berlin, respectively.
Composers of the 19th century who made their period the great age of Italian opera were Gioacchino Rossini , Gaetano Donizetti , Vincenzo Bellini , and, above all, Giuseppe Verdi. Arturo Toscanini is generally regarded as one of the greatest operatic and orchestral conductors of his time; two noted contemporary conductors are Claudio Abbado and Riccardo Muti. Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the piano. In philosophy, exploration, and statesmanship, Italy has produced many world-renowned figures: Notable intellectual and political leaders of more recent times include the Nobel Peace Prize winner in , Ernesto Teodoro Moneta ; the sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto ; the political theorist Gaetano Mosca ; the philosopher, critic, and historian Benedetto Croce ; the educator Maria Montessori ; Benito Mussolini , the founder of Fascism and dictator of Italy from to ; Carlo Sforza and Alcide De Gasperi , famous latter-day statesmen; and the Communist leaders Antonio Gramsci , Palmiro Togliatti , and Enrico Berlinguer.
The great Romantic English poet, Lord Byron , described Italian as a language that sounds "as if it should be writ on satin. Italian, like English, belongs to the Indo-European family of languages. Like French and Spanish, it is a Romance language, one of the modern languages that developed from Latin. In particular, among the Romance languages, Italian is considered to be the closest to Latin in terms of vocabulary.
Standard Italian evolved from a dialect spoken in Tuscany , given that it was the first region to produce great writers as Dante , Petrarch and Boccaccio. Thanks to its cultural prestige, this dialect was adopted first in the Italian states , and then by the Kingdom of Italy after the unification in It may be considered somewhat intermediate, linguistically and geographically, between the Italo-Dalmatian languages of the South and the Gallo-Italic languages of the North, and through Corsican varieties with Sardinian , becoming the center of a dialect continuum.
Its development was also influenced by the other Italian dialects and by the Germanic language of post-Roman invaders. There are only a few communities in Italy in which Italian is not spoken as the first language, but many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardised Italian and other regional languages.
Today, despite regional variations in the form of accents and vowel emphasis, Italian is fully comprehensible throughout the country. Many influences in Italy have helped standardize Italian. They include military service, education, and nationwide communication by means of newspapers, books, radio, and television. Italy is one of the world's greatest centers of architecture, art, and books.
Among its many of libraries, the most important are in the national library system, which contains two central libraries, in Florence 5. While both libraries are designated as copyright libraries, Florence now serves as the site designated for conservation and cataloging of Italian publications and the site in Rome catalogs foreign publications acquired by the state libraries. Italy, a world center of culture, history and art, has more than 3, museums.
They contain, perhaps, the most important collections of artifacts from ancient civilizations. Taranto's museum, for example, offers material enabling scholars to probe deeply into the history of Magna Graecia. The archaeological collections in the Roman National Museum in Rome and in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples are probably among the world's best. The classical age is not the only age represented in Italy's museums. The Italian Renaissance is well represented in a number of museums: Many of these museums, are the former palaces of kings or the houses of royal families.
In , the first internet connection in Italy was experimented in Pisa , the third in Europe after Norway and England. Currently Internet access is available to businesses and home users in various forms, including dial-up, cable, DSL, and wireless. According to data released by the fibre-to-the-home FTTH Council Europe, Italy represents one of the largest FTTH markets in Europe, with more than 2,5 million homes passed by fibre at end-December ;  at the same date the country reported around , fibre subscribers. The government aims to extend the fibre-optic network to rural areas. As of [update] , there were about 90 daily newspapers in the country, but not all of them had national circulation.
Among the most important periodicals are the pictorial weeklies — Oggi , L'Europeo , L'espresso , and Gente. Famiglia Cristiana is a Catholic weekly periodical with a wide readership. The majority of papers are published in northern and central Italy, and circulation is highest in these areas.
Rome and Milan are the most important publication centers. A considerable number of dailies are owned by the political parties, the Roman Catholic Church, and various economic groups. In general, the journalistic level of the Italian papers is high, and two dailies, Milan's Corriere della Sera and Turin's La Stampa , enjoy international respect.
- The MBA Guide To Networking (Henry Series for MBAs Book 3).
- Class 2 Transferases I: 28 (Springer Handbook of Enzymes).
- Popular Articles;
- The Physick Book of Deliverance Dane.
The law provides for freedom of speech and the press, and the government is said to respect these rights in practice. Of all the claimants to the title of the "Father of Radio", the one most associated with it is the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi. By he flashed the first wireless signal across the English Channel and two years later received the letter "S", telegraphed from England to Newfoundland.
This was the first successful transatlantic radiotelegraph message in Today, radio waves that are broadcast from thousands of stations, along with waves from other sources, fill the air around us continuously. Italy has three state-controlled radio networks that broadcast day and evening hours on both AM and FM.
In addition, many private radio stations mix popular and classical music. The first form of televised media in Italy was introduced in , when the first experimental broadcasting began. However, this lasted for a very short time: There are two main national television organisations responsible for most viewing: The television networks offer varied programs, including news, operas, game shows, sitcoms, cartoons, plays, documentaries, musicals, and films-all in Italian.
All programs are in color, except for the old black-and-white movies. Conventional satellite dishes can pick up European broadcasts, including some in English. Italy set up its present form of government in That year, the people voted to change their nation from a monarchy ruled by a king to a republic headed by a president. King Umberto II immediately left the throne.
The voters elected a group of members, called a Constituent Assembly , to write a constitution. The Constitution was approved in and became effective on 1 January The Constitution established a governing system made up of a president, a cabinet called the Council of Ministers headed by a prime minister, and a Parliament made up of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies.
The president of Italy is elected to a seven-year term by both houses of Parliament and a small number of regional representatives. The president must be at least 50 years old. He or she appoints the prime minister, who forms a government. The president has the power to dissolve Parliament and call new elections. The president is the commander of the Italian armed forces, and can declare war.
Italy has no vice president. If the president of Italy becomes ill, the president of the Italian Senate takes over the office. If the president dies, a presidential election is held. The prime minister determines national policy and is the most important person in the Italian government. The prime minister is selected by the president — usually from the members of Parliament — and must be approved by Parliament.
The prime minister has no fixed term of office and can be voted out of office by Parliament at any time. Members of the Cabinet are chosen by the prime minister, and they are usually selected from the members of Parliament. They are then appointed by the president and must be approved by Parliament. The Italian prime minister and the cabinet are officially called the government.
Italy was a founding member of the European Community — now the European Union. Roman Catholicism is by far the largest religion in the country. Most baptisms, weddings, and funeral services are held in church. An agreement called a "Concordat" governs since the relationship between Italy and the Roman Catholic Church. For instance, the agreement exempts priests and other members of religious orders from military service and gives tax exemptions to Catholic organizations.
Even though the main Christian denomination in Italy is Roman Catholicism, there are some minorities of Protestant , Waldensian , Eastern Orthodox and other Christian churches. In the past two decades, Italy has received several waves of immigrants and as a result, some , Muslims 1. Italian church architecture is equally spectacular and historically important to Western culture , notably St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, Cathedral of St.
Football is a popular spectator and participation sport. The Italian national team is among the very best in the world and has won the World Cup on four different occasions: Only Brazil has a better record. Major Italian clubs frequently compete at a high level of European competitions. Italy has also taken part in all the Winter Olympic Games , winning medals, and medals at the Summer Olympic Games. Italy has the sixth highest medal total of all time with Rugby union is also recognised in Italy; clubs compete domestically in the Super 10, as well as the European Heineken Cup tournament.
Cycling is also a well-represented sport in Italy. Italians are second only to Belgium in winning the most World Cycling Championships. Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since , and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history, with a record of 15 Drivers' Championships and 16 Constructors' Championships. Other very popular sports in Italy are basketball , volleyball , and boxing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Music and performing arts. Flag Coat of arms. Italian fashion and Italian design. Science and technology in Italy. Theatre of ancient Rome. Italian people and List of Italians. Secondary, widely spoken or understood. Understood by some due to former colonisation. Libraries in Italy and Category: This section is empty.
You can help by adding to it. Freedom of the Press report. List of newspapers in Italy. List of radio stations in Italy. List of television channels in Italy. Foreign relations of Italy. Roman Catholicism in Italy. Cambridge University Press, Treccani, il portale del sapere. The A to Z of Renaissance Art. Archived 16 July at the Wayback Machine. DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Dorling Kindersley Ltd, Cornell University Press, Retrieved 20 August Design City Milan - Cecilia Bolognesi". Archived from the original on 10 January Retrieved 20 August — via Google Books. Four Centuries of Violin Making: Fine Instruments from the Sotheby's Archive.
Laura Pausini a ruota libera: Archived 21 April at the Wayback Machine. TV Sorrisi e Canzoni Web. Griffe e ambiente, ecco la nuova Pausini. Archived 1 November at the Wayback Machine. Il Tempo , 6 March Countries and Their Cultures, The American Heritage Science Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Encyclopedia of Earth, Encyclopedia of The Renaissance and the Reformation. North Carolina Museum of Art: Oxford University Press, Renaissance and Reformation Volume 1. The edible Italian garden. A passion for wine. An Unashamed Defense of Coffee. Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 19 November Archived copy as title link Italy.
Education and Study in Italy. Retrieved 17 July Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 27 September Vision the Italian Think Tank. Italy could be the spiritual empire that transforms and unites Western civilization. The New York Times. The uncommonly pleasant setting is clear: The culturally related points include many of the fountains of Western culture: A Handbook of Etruscan Studies.
Wayne State University Press, Owing to Italy's unique geographical location and configuration, excellent climate and numerous cultural and artistic expressions , the country has enjoyed a very privileged cultural position in Europe and the world. As the direct descendant of the Roman Empire, the Italian nation has achieved and enjoyed a unique status of political power. The Roman Empire and cultural domination of the Italian Renaissance, which were influenced by Etruscan historical tradition, still represents a model of cultural expression for other nations.
A young woman writing a thank you note to her boyfriend in the Navy for the skull of a Japanese soldier that he sent, A rare and disturbing picture, so much about this it's still a mystery. The early teen bicycle messengers, In , the National Child Labor Committee hired Lewis Hine, a New York sociologist and photographer, to document the exploitative working conditions of child laborers in dozens of occupations, from mining and manufacturing to farming and newspaper selling. Inside the Nazi-controlled ghetto of Lodz, The Lodz ghetto became the second largest ghetto created by the Nazis after their invasion of Poland — the largest was the Warsaw Ghetto.
The bookmobiles — Vintage photos of traveling libraries, ss The bookmobile was travelling library often used to provide books to villages and city suburbs that had no library buildings. After the devastating World War II, At the end of the war, millions of people were dead and millions homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and much of the European industrial infrastructure had been destroyed.